When planning counseling programs, a needs assessment helps professional counselors understand the needs of the various subpopulations in a community with a stake in the success of the program. Data-driven needs assessment can involve all of the following except:
A. Comparing clients’ average pre- and post-treatment scores on a clinical assessment.
B. Surveying community members or clients to determine what they feel is most important to be addressed.
C. Comparing groups’ average raw scores on a clinical assessment.
D. Using disaggregated means so that scores of different groups (for example, gender, age, or race/ethnicity) can be compared.