Reply to two post | Anatomy homework help


RESEARCH (Label this section)

Teach the topic to students. Responses must add new information not previously discussed. Consider new factual information tied with critical thinking. Share interesting and current research on the topic.

Use APA citations in the post to clarify sources.

Do not simply summarize another student’s post and agree/disagree.

Consider starting out posts with, “A research article I found said,” “Did you know,” or “Three things I found interesting were… .”

CRITICAL THINKING (Label this section)

Pose new possibilities or opinions not previously voiced.

Connect the dots. Why is this an important topic for you, your community, society, or the world? How does it relate to other concepts in the text?

 Add references and word count for all posts

125 Words Minimum


#12 Lung Cancer; the Beginning, Progression and how it exert its lethal effect 


Lung cancer stars in the lungs, one of the body’s most vital and fragile organs. Lungs are two spongy organs located in the chest and they provide oxygen to the body. Lungs cancer usually begins with a tumor which is a group of cells that grow and destroys the nearby tissues. It is a disease caused by uncontrolled cell division in lungs. They divide and make more copies of themselves which is their purpose but sometimes, they get changed (mutation) that cause them to make more of themselves when they should not. Those damaged cells uncontrollably dividing create masses or tumors that eventually keep the organ from working properly and will later cause cancer. There are many cancer that can affect the lungs but there are two main kind small cell lung cancer and non-small cell cancer. Cancer is usually staged based on the size of the initial tumor and how far and deep into the tissues it goes. What are the stages of lung cancer ?

In stage 0 the cancer is in the top lining of the lung or bronchus. It has not spread to the other part of the lungs nor outside. 

In stage 1 cancer starts to spread 

In stage 2 it gets larger and has spread in the lymph nodes inside the lungs in there is more than one tumor.

In stage 3 cancer gets lager and tumors are multiplying. 

In stage 4  cancer has spread to the other lung, the fluid is all around the lungs and around other distant organs. 

Critical thinking 

Lung cancer is one of the main cause of death in here but the problem is people barely know the symptoms and always end up in the hospital too late. For some it might be asymptomatic but if we keep checking up on time we can catch it in the early stage and get necessary treatment for it. 


                                                                                                                                                                            Wc 331


Saladin,K. (2020). Anatomy & Physiology: The unit of form an function (9th Ed.). Mc Graw Hill Education. 


Common disorders of blood clotting vs Normal.


Normally we do not have clotting in the vessels.The goal is to prevent clotting. Hemostasis is how we stop bleeding. There are several disorders of hemostasis. Thrombolytic is an undesirable clot formation, basically getting a clot where you don’t want to. Bleeding disorders that have abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation, maybe known as a free bleeder.. And disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) involves both types of disorders. It is prevented by the platelets adhering by keeping the endothelium smooth of blood vessels preventing the platelets from clinging. As long as they are intact the platelets will just glide through the vessels.

If you get a laceration, that is where the antithrombotic substance nitric oxide and prostacyclin secreted by the endothelial cells secrete, that does not allow platelets to smoothly go through. Platelets tend to get sticky and start to adhere to from a clot. Vitamin E acts as a coagulant, preventing things from coagulating in the vessels. A Thrombus if a clot that develops and stays in an unbroken vessel, may block circulation and lead to death. Blockage in a blood vessel that could possibly cause a stroke. Embolus is when that clot has formed in an unbroken blood vessel that starts to roam freely floating but can get stuck somewhere. When a thrombus breaks loose it becomes an embolus. 

If someone has an embolus like a pulmonary embolism this is where a clot has broken free and now has blocked one of the vessels in the lung. This prevents blood flow which stops gas exchange. When they develop into the small vessels of your brain it is called a cerebral emboli. This leads to stroke-like symptoms, lack of oxygen to the brain leads to stroke or death. Someone who is prone to strokes or heart attacks may be prescribed or directed to take anticoagulants such as, Aspirin, Heparin, Warfarin.

Critical Thinking:

When someone gets hurt, their body stops the bleeding by forming a blood clot. Clotting creates protein from your liver and makes sticky platelets in your blood to form a blood clot. This is what makes coagulation. It is important for the clotting to stop a cut from bleeding and starting the healing process. Too much clotting can cause problems.


***Saladin, K. (2020). Anatomy & physiology: The unit of form and function (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education***

Bleeding and Clotting Disorders. (2016, September 29). YouTube. Retrieved April 13, 2023, from