Final project introduction | Science homework help

Please see attached for instruction.

All you’ll be working on is the Introduction, including the research problem.

Research Question

Is there an inverse association between schooling and years of smoking ?

 Null hypothesis : There is no statistically significant relationship between education level and smoking duration.

Alternative hypothesis: Individuals with higher education levels are more likely with shorter duration of smoking.

These are the sources that will be used. 

Assari, S., & Mistry, R. (2018). Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(4), 763.

Fernández, E., Schiaffino, A., Borrell, C., Benach, J., Ariza, C., Ramon, J. M., Twose, J., Nebot, M., & Kunst, A. (2006). Social class, education, and smoking cessation: Long-term follow-up of patients treated at a smoking cessation unit. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 8(1), 29–36.

Koning, P., Webbink, D., Martin, N.G. (2010, March). The Effect of Education on Smoking Behavior: New Evidence from Smoking Durations of a Sample of Twins. DOI:10.1007/s00181-014-0842-6

Gilman, S.E., Martin, L.T.,  Abrams, D.B.,  Kawachi, I., Kubzansky, L., Loucks, E.B., Rende, R., Rudd, R., Stephen L Buka, S.L. (2008, June). Educational attainment and cigarette smoking: a causal association? International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 37, Issue 3,  Pages 615–624,

Choi, W. Y., Kim, C. H., & Lee, O. G. (2013). Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking. Korean journal of family medicine, 34(3), 190–198.